In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga (Portugal); this kingdom was incorporated into that of the Visigoths in 585.
In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740.
56% of the Galician population speak Galician as their first language, while 43% speak more in Castilian.
The name Galicia derives from the Latin toponym Callaecia, later Gallaecia, related to the name of an ancient Celtic tribe that resided north of the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, or These Callaeci were the first tribe in the area to help the Lusitanians against the invading Romans.
The climate of Galicia is usually temperate and rainy, with markedly drier summers; it is usually classified as Oceanic.
Its rich mineral deposits of tin and gold led to the development of Bronze Age metallurgy, and to the commerce of bronze and gold items all along the Atlantic coast of Western Europe.
Thousands of Megalithic tumuli are distributed throughout the country, but mostly along the coastal areas.
Within each tumulus is a stone burial chamber known locally as anta (dolmen), frequently preceded by a corridor.
This resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship.
After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and currently in force, providing Galicia with self-government.
The interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape; mountain ranges rise to 2,000 m (6,600 ft) in the east and south.